#### Teacher/ Learner Resources

Math
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Rational Numbers and Irrational Numbers
1.3 Properties of Real Numbers
Exercise 1.1
1.4 Complex Numbers
Exercise 1.2
1.5 The Real Line
1.6 Geometrical Representation of Complex Numbers The Complex Plane
1.7 To find real and imaginary parts of
Exercise 1.3
2.1 Introduction
Exercise 2.1
2.2 Operations on Sets
2.3 Venn Diagrams
Exercise 2.2
2.4 Operations on Three Sets
2.5 Properties of Union and Intersection
Exercise 2.3
2.6 Inductive and Deductive Logic
2.7 Implication or conditional
Exercise 2.4
2.8 Truth Sets, A link between Set Theory and Logic.
Exercise 2.5
2.9 Relations
2.10 Functions
2.11 Inverse of a function
Exercise 2.6
2.12 Binary Operations
2.13 Groups
2.14 Solution of linear equations
2.15 Reversal law of inverses
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Determinant of a 2 x 2 matrix
3.3 Solution of simultaneous linear equations by using matrices
Exercise 3.1
3.4 Field
3.5 Properties of Matrix Addition , Scalar Multiplication and Matrix Multiplication.
Exercise 3.2
3.6 Determinants
3.7 Properties of Determinants which Help in their Evaluation
3.8 Adjoint and Inverse of a Square Matrix of Order n>=3
Exercise 3.3
3.9 Elementary Row and Column Operations on a Matrix
3.10 Echelon and Reduced Echelon Forms of Matrices
Exercise 3.4
3.11 System of Linear Equations
3.12 Cramers Rule
Exercise 3.5
4.1 Introduction
Exercise 4.1
4.2 Solution of Equations Reducible to the Quadratic Equation
Exercise 4.2
Radical Equations
Exercise 4.3
4.3 Three Cube Roots of Unity
4.4 Four Fourth Roots of Unity
Exercise 4.4
4.5 Polynomial Function
4.6 Theorems
4.7 Synthetic Division
Exercise 4.5
4.8 Relations Between the Roots and the Coefficients of a Quadratic Equation
4.9 Formation of an Equation Whose Roots are Given
Exercise 4.6
4.10 Nature of the roots of a quadratic equation
Exercise 4.7
4.11 System of Two Equations Involving Two Variables
Exercise 4.8
4.12 Problems on Quadratic Equations
Exercise 4.10
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Rational Fraction
5.3 Resolution of a Rational Fraction P (x)/Q( x) into Partial Fractions
Case I: Non-repeated Linear Factors
Exercise 5.1
Case II: Partial Fractions
Exercise 5.2
Case III: When Q(x) contains Non Repeated Irreducible Quadratic Factors
Exercise 5.3
Case IV: Partial Fractions
Exercise 5.4
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Types of sequences
Exercise 6.1
6.3 Arithmetic Progression (A.P)
Exercise 6.2
6.4 Arithmetic Mean (A.M)
Exercise 6.3
6.5 Series
Sum of first n terms of an arithmetic series
Exercise 6.4
6.6 Word Problems on A.p.
Exercise 6.5
6.7 Geometric Progression (G.P)
Exercise 6.6
6.8 Geometric Means
Exercise 6.7
6.9 Sum of n terms of a Geometric Series
6.10 The Infinite Geometric Series
Exercise 6.8
6.11 Word Problems on G.P.
Exercise 6.9
6.12 Harmonic Progression (H.P)
6.13 Relations between Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic Means
Exercise 6.10
6.14 Sigma Notation (or Summation Notation)
6.15 To Find the Formulae for the Sums
Exercise 6.11
7.1 Introduction
Exercise 7.1
7.2 Permutation
Exercise 7.2
Exercise 7.3
7.3 Combination
Exercise 7.4
7.4 Probability
Exercise 7.5
Exercise 7.6
Exercise 7.7
Exercise 7.8
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Principle of Mathematical Induction
8.3 Principle of Extended Mathematical Induction
Exercise 8.1
8.4 Binomial Theorem
Exercise 8.2
8.5 The Binomial Theorem when the index n is a negative integer or a fraction.
8.6 Application of the Binomial Theorem
Exercise 8.3
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Units of Measures of Angles
9.3 Relation between the length of an arc of a circle and the circular measure of its central angle.
Exercise 9.1
9.4 General Angle (Coterminal Angles)
9.5 Angle In The Standard Position
9.6 Trigonometric Functions
9.7 Trigonometric Functions of any angle
9.8 Fundamental Identities
9.9 Signs of the Trigonometric functions
Exercise 9.2
9.10 The values of Trigonometric Functions of acute angles 45?, 30? and 60?
9.11 The values of the Trigonometric Functions of angles 0?, 90?, 180?, 270?, 360?.
Exercise 9.3
9.12 Domains of Trigonometric functions and of Fundamental Identities
Exercise 9.4
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Deductions from Fundamental Law
10.3 Trigonometric Ratios of Allied Angles
Exercise 10.1
10.4 Further Application of Basic Identities
Exercise 10.2
10.5 Double angle Identities
10.6 Half angle Identities
10.7 Triple angle Identities
Exercise 10.3
10.8. Sum, Difference and Product of Sines and Cosines
Exercise 10.4
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Period of Trigonometric Functions
Exercise 11.1
11.3 Values of Trigonometric Functions
11.4 Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
11.5 Graph of y = sin x from -2pi to 2pi
11.6 Graph of y = cos x from -2pi to 2pi
11.7 Graph of y = tan x from -pi To pi
11.8 Graph of y = cot x From -2pi to
11.9 Graph of y = sec x from -2pi to 2pi
11.10 Graph of y = csc x from -2pi to 2pi
Exercise 11.2
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Tables of Trigonometric Ratios
Exercise 12.1
12.3 Solution of Right Triangles
Exercise 12.2
12.4 (a) Heights And Distances
12.5 Engineering and Heights and Distances
Exercise 12.3
12.6 Oblique Triangles
12.7 Solution of Oblique Triangles
Exercise 12.4
Exercise 12.5
Exercise 12.6
12.8 Area of Triangle
Exercise 12.7
12.9 Circles Connected with Triangle
12.10 Engineering and Circles Connected With Triangles
Exercise 12.8
13.1 Introduction
13.2 The Inverse sine Function
13.3 The Inverse Cosine Function
13.4 Inverse Tangent Function
13.5 Inverse Cotangent, Secant and Cosecant Functions
13.6 Domains and Ranges of Principal Trigonometric Function and Inverse Trigonometric Functions.
Exercise 13.1
13.7 Addition and Subtraction Formulas
Exercise 13.2
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Solution of General Trigonometric Equations
Exercise 14

Chemistry
1.1 Atom
1.2 Relative Atomic Mass
1.3 Isotopes
1.4 Analysis of a Compound-Empirical And Molecular Formulas
1.5 Concept of Mole
1.6 Stoichiometry
1.7 Limiting Reactant
1.8 Yield
2.1 Filtration
2.2 Crystalization
2.3 Sublimation
2.4 Solvemt Extraction
2.5 Chromatography
3.1 States Of Matter
3.2 Gas Laws
3.3 General Gas Equation
3.4 Avogadros Law
3.5 Daltons Law Of Partial Pressures
3.6 Diffusion And Effusion
3.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory Of Gases
3.8 Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature
3.9 Liquefaction Of Gases
3.10 Non Ideal Behaviour Of Gases
3.11 Plasma State
4.1 Intermolecular Forces
4.2 Evaporation
4.3 Liquid Crystals
4.4 Introduction
4.5 Crystal Lattice
4.6 Crystals and their Classificaion
4.7 Classification of Solids
4.8 Determination of Avogadros Number
5.1 Sub Atomic Particles of ATOM
5.2 Rutherfords Model of Atom (Discovery of Nucleus)
5.3 Plancks Quantum Theory
5.4 Bohrs Model of Atom
5.5 Spectrum
5.6 X-RAYS and Atomic Number
5.7 WAVE-PARTICLE NATURE OF MATTER (DUAL NATURE OF MATTER)
5.8 HEISENBERG S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
5.9 ELECTRONIC DISTRIBUTION
6.1.0 Introduction
6.2 ATOMIC SIZES
6.3 Ionization Energy,Electron Affinity and Electronegativity
6.4 TYPES OF BONDS
6.5 BOND ENERGY, BOND LENGTH AND DIPOLE MOMENT
6.6 THE EFFECT OF BONDING ON THE PROPERTIES OF COMPOUNDS
7.0.0 INTRODUCTION
7.1 Spontaneous and Non-Spontaneous Reactions
7.2 System, Surronding and State Function
7.3 Internal Energy and First Law of Thermodynamic
7.4 Enthalpy
7.5.0 HESS?S LAW OF CONSTANT HEAT SUMMATION
7.5.1 The Bom -Haber Cycle
8.1.0 Reversible and Irreversible Reactions
8.1.1 State of Chemical Equilibrium
8.1.2 Law of Mass Action
8.1.3 Equilibrium Constant Expressions for Some Important Reactions
8.1.4 Relationship Between Equilibrium Constants
8.1.5 Applications of Equilibrium Constant
8.1.6 The Le-Chateliers Principle
8.2 Applications of Chemical Equilibrium in Industry
8.3.0 IONIC PRODUCT OF WATER
8.4.0 IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF ACIDS (Ka)
8.5.0 IONIZATION CONSTANT OF BASES (Kb)
8.6.0 Lowry Bronsted Acid and Base Concept
8.7 COMMON ION EFFECT
8.8.0 Buffer Solutions
8.9.0 EQUILIBRIA OF SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE IONIC COMPOUNDS (SOLUBILITY PRODUCT)
9.0.0 CONCEPT OF A SOLUTION
9.1.0 CONCENTRATION UNITS OF SOLUTIONS
9.2 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS
9.3.0 Ideal and Non-Ideal Solutions
9.3.1 RAOULTS LAW
9.4 VAPOUR PRESSURES OF LIQUID-LIQUID SOLUTIONS
9.5 SOLUBILITY AND SOLUBILITY CURVES
9.6 COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS
9.7.0 ENERGETICS OF SOLUTION
9.8 HYDRATION AND HYDROLYSIS
10.0 INTRODUCTION
10.1 OXIDATION STATE AND BALANCING OF REDOX EQUATIONS
10.2 ELECTROLYTIC CONDUCTION
10.3 ELECTRODE POTENTIAL
10.4 THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES
10.5 Modern Batteries and Fuel Cells
11.0 INTRODUCTION
11.1 RATE OF REACTION
11.2 DETERMINATION OF THE RATE OF A CHEMICAL REACTION
11.3 ENERGY OF ACTIVATION
11.4 FINDING THE ORDER OF REACTION
11.5 FACTORS AFFECTING RATES OF REACTIONS
11.6 CATALYSIS

Physics
1 Measurements
1.1 Introduction to Physics
1.2 Physical Quantities
1.3 International System of Units
1.4 Errors and Uncertainties
1.5 Significant Figures
1.6 Precision and Accuracy
1.7 Assessment of Toal Uncertainty in the Final Result
1.8 Dimensions of Physical Quantities
2 Vectors of Equilibrium
2.1 Basic Concepts of Vectors
2.2 Vector Addition by Rectangular Components
2.3 Product of Two Vectors
2.4 Torque
2.5 Equilibrium of Forces
2.6 Equilibrium of Torques
3 Motion and Force
3.1 Displacement
3.2 Velocity
3.3 Acceleration
3.4 Velocity-Time Graph
3.5 Review of Equations of Uniformly Accelerated Motion
3.6 Newtons Laws of Motion
3.7 Momentum
3.8 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
3.9 Force Due to Water Flow
3.10 Momentum and Explosive Forces
3.11 Rocket Propulsion
3.12 Projectile Motion
4 Work and Energy
4.1 Work Done by a Constant Force
4.2 Work Done by a Variable Force
4.3 WorkDone by Gravitational Field
4.4 Power
4.5 Energy
4.6 Interconversion of Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy
4.7 Conservation of Energy
4.8 Non Conventional Energy Sources
5 Circular Motion
5.1 Angular Displacement
5.2 Angular Velocity
5.3 Angular Acceleration
5.4 Relation Between Angular and Linear Velocities
5.5 Centripetal Force
5.6 Moment of Inertia
5.7 Angular Momentum
5.8 Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum
5.9 Rotational Kinetic Energy
5.10 Aritifical Satellites
5.11 Real and Apparent Weight
5.12 Weightlessness in Satellites and Gravity Free System
5.13 Orbital Velocity
5.14 Aritifical Gravity
5.15 Geostationary Orbits
5.16 Communication Satellites
5.17 Newtons and Einsteins Views of Gravitation
6 Fluid Dynamics
6.1 Viscous Drag and Stokes Law
6.2 Terminal Velocity
6.3 Fluid Flow
6.4 Equation of Continuity
6.5 Bernoullis Equation
6.6 Applications of Bernoullis Equation
7 Oscillation
7.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
7.2 SHM and Uniform Circular Motion
7.3 Phase
7.4 A Horizontal Mass Spring System
7.5 Simple Pendulum
7.6 Energy Conservation in SHM
7.7 Free and Forced Oscillations
7.8 Resonance
7.9 Damped Oscillations
7.10 Sharpness of Resonance
8 Waves
8.1 Progressive Waves
8.2 Periodic Waves
8.3 Speed of Sound in Air
8.4 Principle of Superposition
8.5 Interference
8.6 Beats
8.7 Reflection of Waves
8.8 Stationary Waves
8.9 Stationary Waves in a Stretched String
8.10 Stationary Waves in Air Columns
8.11 Doppler Effect
9 Physical Optics
9.1 Wavefronts
9.2 Huygens Principle
9.3 Interference of Light Waves
9.4 Youngs Double Slit Experiment
9.5 Interference in Thin Films
9.6 Newtons Rings
9.7 Michelsons Interferometer
9.8 Diffraction of Light
9.9 Diffraction Due to a Narrow Slit
9.10 Diffraction Grating
9.11 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals
9.12 Polarization
10 Optical Instruments
10.1 Least Distance Distinct Vision
10.2 Magnifying Power and Resolving Power of Optical Instruments
10.3 Simple Microscope
10.4 Compound Microscope
10.5 Astronomical Telescope
10.6 Spectrometer
10.7 Speed of Light
10.8 Introduction to Fibre Optics
10.9 Fibre Optic Principles
10.10 Types of Optical Fibre
10.11 Signal Transmission and Conversion to Sound
10.12 Losses of Power
11 Heat and thermodynamics
11.1 Kinetic Theory of Gases
11.2 Internal Energy
11.3 Work and Heat
11.4 First Law of Thermodynamics
11.5 Molar Specific Heats of a Gas
11.6 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
11.7 Heat Engine
11.8 Second Law of Thermodynamics
11.9 Carnot Engine and Carnots Theorem
11.10 Thermodynamic Scale of Temperature
11.11 Petrol Engine
11.12 Entropy
11.13 Environmental Crisis as Entropy Crisis
Lecture Playlist:

Numericals Playlist

Source and Credit: Friends Physics by Mr. Muhmmad Ali
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCi1E7XZCgDLcw9XJ4xndgng

Biology
1.1 BIOLOGY AND SOME MAJOR FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION
1.2 LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
1.3 LIVING WORLD IN TIME
1.4 BIOLOGY AND THE SERVICE OF MANKIND
1.5 PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF ENVIRONMENT
2.1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
2.2 IMPORTANCE OF CARBON
2.3 IMPORTANCE OF WATER
2.4 CARBOHYDRATES
2.5 LIPIDS
2.6 PROTEINS
2.7 STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS
2.8 NUCLEIC ACIDS (DNA AND RNA)
2.9 CONJUGSTED MOLECULES
3.1 ENZYMES
3.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYMES
3.3 MECHANISM OF ENZYMES ACTION (CATALYSIS)
3.4 FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF ENZYME ACTION
4.1 EMERGENCE AND IMPLICATION OF CELL THEORY
4.2 STRUCTURE OF A GENERALIZED CELL
4.3 NUCLEUS
4.4 PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELL
5.1 VARITEY OF LIFE
5.2 NOMENCLATURE
5.3 TWO TO FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
5.4 VIRUSES
6.1 DISCOVERY OF BACTERIA
6.2 OCCURRENCE OF BACTERIA
6.3 STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA
6.4 IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIA
6.5 USE AND MISUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS
6.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF CYANOBACTERIA
6.7 ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
6.8 NOSTOC
7.1 THE KINGDOM PROTISTA
7.2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
7.3 DIVERSITY AMONG PROTISTA
7.4 MAJOR GROUPS OF PROTISTA
7.5 FUNGUS-LIKE PROTISTS
8.1 THE BODY OF FUNGUS
8.2 NUTRITION IN FUNGI
8.3 REPRODUCTION
8.4 CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI
8.5 LAND ADAPTATIONS OF FUNGI
8.6 IMPORTANCE OF FUNGI
8.7 KINGDOM PLANTAE
9.1 CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTAE
9.2 DIVISION BRYOPHYTA
9.3 ADAPTATION TO LAND HABITAT
9.4 CLASSIFICATION
9.5 DIVISION TRACHEOPHYTA
9.6 PSILOPSIDA (PSILOPHYTA)
9.7 EVOLUTION OF LEAF
9.8 LYCOPSIDA
9.9 SPHENOPSIDA
9.10 PTEROPSIDA
9.11 EVOLUTION OF SEED HABIT
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEXITY IN ANIMALS
10.3 PARAZOA
10.4 GRADE RADIATA
10.5 GRADE BILATERIA
11.1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS (CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL ENERGY)
11.2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS
11.3 CHLOROPLASTS – THE SITES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN PLANTS
11.4 PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS
11.5 LIGHT-THE DRIVING ENERGY
11.6 ROLE OF CARBON DIOXIDE : A PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTANT
11.7 REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
11.8 RESPIRATION
12.1 AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION
12.2 HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION
12.3 DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
12.4 SOME COMMON DISEASES RELATED TO NUTRITION
13.1 NEED OF RESPIRATORY GAS EXCHANGE
13.2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GAS EXCHANGE IN AIR AND IN WATER
13.3 GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN PLANTS
13.4 RESPIRATORY ORGANS IN REPRESENTATIVE AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS
13.5 MECHANICS OF VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY REGULATION OF BREATHING IN MAN
13.6 TRANSPORT OF RESPIRATORY GASES
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 TRANSPORT IN PLANTS
14.3 ASCENT OF SAP
14.4 TYPES OF TRANSPIRATION
14.5 OPENING AND CLOSING OF STOMATA
14.6 TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC SOLUTES
14.7 TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS
14.8 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
14.9 TRANSPORT IN MAN
14.10 DISORDERS
14.11 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
14.12 IMMUNITY – AND ITS TYPES

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